Marvel “Whitman Variants”: The Next Collectible Craze?

by Harry Stone III

Marvel-Whitman-Variants-300x157 Marvel "Whitman Variants": The Next Collectible Craze?As collectors, we often try to get our hands on comics that are rare. In recent years, Marvel newsstand editions have often sold for quadruple the price of their direct counterparts even though many are extremely common. Early direct editions are more scarce, so why don’t they garner the same attention or premiums? Part of the reason is the frequent heated debate and confusion regarding early direct market sales. Hopefully, I will be able to shed some light on an often overlooked and puzzling subject. Let’s take a look at what many call the “Whitman” variant.

The Dawn of the Direct Market

There is an overwhelming amount of misinformation about the start of Marvel’s direct market distribution. Keep in mind that forty years ago, way before the internet, comic book shops were still a relatively new thing. No one had any idea that they would turn out to be as popular as they are today and a lot of the information was lost. In order to understand these early days, we are forced to rely on anecdotes from sellers that were there at their advent.

It is often said that the Marvel direct market started in 1979. June 1979 is when Marvel took control over shipping to direct market retailers. They distinguished direct market copies from newsstand editions by placing a strike through the UPC. Later in the 80s, they would replace the UPC with an illustration such as Spider-Man’s head for direct editions. Newsstands from this era are the ones everyone is currently making a fuss over.

IMG_2668-199x300 Marvel "Whitman Variants": The Next Collectible Craze?The direct market did not start in 1979 however, despite widespread belief. Some say that the direct market started as early as 1972, even if it only made up a small percentage of sales. Comic book shops had started springing up in urban centers such as New York City and Chicago. Direct and newsstand copies at this point were indistinguishable. That is, until February 1977, the dawn of the “Whitman” variant. From February 1977 to May 1979, Western Publishing and others began sporadically distributing bagged direct edition comics distinguishable from their newsstand counterparts. These direct editions made up 5% of the market or less. You may or may not have noticed that some of your comics from this period have diamond price tags on the cover as opposed to the typical rectangles. This is where things get a little sticky and disputed.

Newsstand vs Direct Edition

The difference between newsstand and direct edition comics was that direct editions were sold at a discount and non-returnable. Unsold newsstands could be sent back for refunds. Concerned about shops fraudulently returning unsold stock through newsstand vendors, Marvel began to distinguish between the two types of comics with subtle differences in their covers. Western publishing was the largest earlier adopter of the direct market and sold their direct issues to stores through Whitman multi-bags.

There is a lot of discussion about whether or not Whitman was the sole distributor of the direct market in the 1970s or merely the driving force behind it. Many argue that these comics should not be called “Whitmans” because there were other direct distributors. Either way, I am fine with calling the variants from this small window “Whitmans” as this was the nomenclature for decades. I have also seen the terms “No Month Variant”, “3 Pack Variant”, and “Fat Diamond Variant”.

What to Look For?

SpIMG_2559-225x300 Marvel "Whitman Variants": The Next Collectible Craze?otting early, distinguishable direct market editions, or Whitmans, can be confusing as they were not always consistent in their variations. You can have the diamond price with a UPC or a diamond price with a blank UPC box. There are fat diamonds, skinny diamonds, and multi-color diamonds, depending on the issue.

Whitmans are often described as second printings even though they are first printings. This mistaken perception is a result of Whitmans typically being sold months after their direct counterparts, making them undesirable the same way newsstands were in the Copper Age. Bagged direct comics would often sit for months collecting damage, making them even rarer in high grade.

I want to note that Whitman also distributed direct edition comics for other companies. There are DC Whitmans, but since I’m not much of a DC guy, I decided to not touch on the subject. Also, Marvel direct editions June 1979 and later, while not Whitmans as they were distributed to market by Marvel, often featured the same diamonds on their covers and were also scarce.

A Smart Investment?

Currently, newsstand editions are all the rage. That’s despite there being hundreds of thousands of copies comprising 50% or more of the market- depending on the year. Whitmans, on the other hand, made up less than 5% of the market. They make up 1% or less of the listings for any given issue on eBay. On top of only making up less than 1% of available copies, even fewer are available in high grade. This is due to how they were treated and the damage often caused by the seams on poly-bags.

A search for Whitman variants will often show no listings or sales history at all. Simply put, 9.8 Whitmans are almostIMG_2586-1-193x300 Marvel "Whitman Variants": The Next Collectible Craze? impossible to find. One theory I have wrestled with as to why these haven’t taken off is that being as they are so rare, it is hard for sellers to hoard them and manipulate the market. There isn’t enough money to be made promoting these on social media.

If Only I Could Tell the Future

Will Marvel Whitmans be the next big thing? It’s hard to say. I know that I personally enjoy hunting these down simply because of how extremely rare they are. First and foremost, I always recommend collecting what you like. I appreciate rare or unique comics regardless of their investment potential. That being said, in recent years, we have seen newsstand editions, Canadian price variants, and Mark Jeweler copies command record-breaking premiums. If you come across some Whitman variants, it definitely can’t hurt to grab a few on the cheap.

“Let us not be too particular; it is better to have old secondhand diamonds than none at all”- Mark Twain

Everything tastes better out of a GoCollect insulated tumbler. We checked.

Swag-Store-Feb-Footer Marvel "Whitman Variants": The Next Collectible Craze?

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Ed Dee February 18, 2021 - 12:40 pm

Great post. How about a blog about Marvel price variants?

Harry Stone III February 18, 2021 - 4:16 pm

Thanks for reading. I have one in the works. Those are actually rare as well and worth our attention, unlike newsstands.

Warren S February 18, 2021 - 1:17 pm

I decided to not call them “Whitman variants”. Rather, I call them “Direct Editions” or sometimes “Diamond Directs” if they have the diamond price box. My only data points are my Iron Man collection. The first diamond edition I see is issue #95 dated February 1977. Not specifically direct, but the price box is a diamond shape (with bar code; I have both the regular and Diamond Direct). The first “Diamond Direct Edition” I see is #101 dated August 1977. I don’t have it yet, but issue #102 has a diamond price box and a blank bar code rectangle at the lower left, similar to the Peter Parker/Spider-Man you pictured in your article. And I still don’t know why there are different shaped diamonds, why some are white while others are yellow, etc. Maybe Marvel intentionally just wanted to mix it up each month to keep the “fraudsters” at bay?

Lots of misinformation — you are correct. I’m still not sure what is really true, so I’ve run with the best I can find. Thank you for the article.

Harry Stone III February 18, 2021 - 4:25 pm


Thanks for reading. I love “Whitmans” since they are pretty hard to come by and have researched them pretty heavily. They can definitely be confusing and people hate the term, but you’re right, early direct editions is probably the more accurate term. I like the term “Diamond Directs”, I might have to steal that.

From my understanding, there is a set window for “Whitmans”, from 2/77 to 5/79. There are diamonds after that as well, but at that point Marvel had taken over. Still, direct copy “Diamonds” were extremely rare even with Marvel at the helm. If we look at issues like Thor #337 and Moon Knight #1, the direct copies are more rare. Despite this, we see sellers still promoting newsstands even though they made up the majority of the market at this point. Confusing stuff, but more more interesting and rare than the newsstand gimmick we see being pumped for books with massive 1990 print runs.

Shelby Thompson April 4, 2021 - 8:19 am

Great article, I want to thank Reggie for leading toward you. I wanted to make a “correction” or “suggestion”. We are stating the Whitman were “direct” sales. I want us to be clear, that when we say “direct” in this context it does not mean comic shops. As there was still limited comic shops in the late 70s and not a strong direct distributor (e.g., Capitol City) that did not come along till later. What is meant by “direct” in terms of the Whitman 3-packs are places did not have newsstand distribution (i.e., a spinner rack). I cite wiki (ugh, I know, but I feel the information is correct in this case) that states, “In the late 1970s, the distribution of comic books on spinners and racks at newsstands, drug stores, and supermarkets continued, but Western also sold packs of three comics in a plastic bag to toy and department stores, airports, and bus/train stations, “as well as other outlets that weren’t conducive to conventional comic racks” (Evanier, Mark, April 29, 2007. “It’s in the Bag!”). The article further states, “The newsstand comics were returnable; the dealer could return unsold copies to the distributor for a refund, but the bagged comics were not. To discourage unscrupulous dealers from opening the plastic bags and returning the nonreturnable issues, Western published the newsstand versions under the Gold Key Comics label, and put the Whitman Comics logo on the bagged versions, although otherwise the issues were identical.”.
I just wanted to make sure we are all understanding the same language, since we are using non-interchangeable terminology.

Harry Stone III April 6, 2021 - 2:11 pm

Thank you. I figured I’d try and take a stab at it since I’ve never really seen anyone tackle the subject directly. Those are great points, confusing subject for sure. How did you end up on the article?

Shelby Thompson April 6, 2021 - 3:35 pm

You were promoted on Reggie Collects youtube channel. I have my own channel and attempting to tackle some of the same topics. We just dropped our first live stream talking about Mark Jewelers Inserts

To go a little further on this discussion of Whitman variants and the Direct Market. I want to propose that the use of the “diamond” by Whitman was later adopted by Marvel to denote ALL direct sales books. I am sure it was not up to Whitman on HOW books would be designated as “direct” (i.e., non-returnable in this case), but the publisher and printer. I would like to take a leap of logic and say that when the Direct Market started to increase (in this case meaning comic shops) that publishers simply used what they already had been doing to designate non-returnable books (i.e., use the diamond in the logo). Therefore, we could surmise that it was thanks to Whitman that Direct Only comics used the diamond in the logo (and blank or slash through the UPC box). This would also mean that the definition of the Direct Market would be more accurate to include ANY location that did not have normal newsstand distribution and not just comic shops.

Harry Stone III April 10, 2021 - 12:31 pm

Diamonds were used to differentiate between the books that Marvel and Whitman distributed to market. When Marvel took over distribution, they continued to use the Diamonds for years after. That’s correct. Technically we those don’t get called Whitmans because Whitman had nothing to do with their distribution at that point. Later diamonds also don’t have the same scarcity.

There have been disputes as to whether or not Whitman was the sole distributor for the Diamonds. Most agree that other companies sold three packs etc that had the diamonds. That being said, they were called Whitmans for decades and even if they weren’t the sole distributor, they sold over 90% of those diamonds. Some months, they were the only distributor and publisher. There are months where no diamonds were produced, and that would be because Whitman did not bring them to market. Whether or not they were the sole distributor can be debated, but there would be no such thing as diamonds without Whitman in the time frame in my article. The article on Cover Price regarding variants and more specifically Whitman’s is helpful as a starting point but is riddled with inaccuracies which is why I took a more in depth look. If you’re looking for some more clarity, the CGC boards are helpful with understanding the difference.

I’m not a fan of going back and changing the language people have used for decades or retroactively changing a first appearance decades later either. That is why many including myself still refer to them as Whitmans. What a “whitman variant” really means is an early direct market comic not distributed by Marvel and most likely distributed by Western publishing between 1977 and 1979 distinguishable by a diamond. But that’s a little long winded isn’t it?

I’ll definitely be checking out your channel. I love Mark Jewelers for some strange reason. Thanks for the discussion, hope this article helps.

Shelby Thompson April 8, 2021 - 3:10 pm


According an article on Cover Price, there are NO Marvel Whiman books. Instead, what Marvel sold to Whitman were their already established diamond logo books that was used on their Direct/Subscription comics.

Broadhead November 15, 2021 - 12:53 am

I have a Whitman Edition of Fantastic Four 199 and it has a black line swipe in the upper left corner of the inside cover. Any idea what that represents?


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